What is uninterruptible power supply (UPS)?


Frequent power outages have been annoying for most companies, factories and other industries due to the increase in excessive consumption of electricity in the summer. Surely, you have experienced frequent power outages and you have thought to yourself that the appliances connected to the city electricity may be damaged, burned, or out of order. To solve this problem, we need a system or a device to provide the necessary load power to the devices without interruption during a power outage. This system or equipment is called UPS emergency power.

Concept of UPS (UPS)

UPS hidden ( Uninterruptible Power Supply (Uninterruptible Power Supply) in Farsi is uninterruptible power supply, which means that the power required by the devices connected to it is provided through the energy stored in the battery, which, in the event of a power outage, provides uninterrupted power. It provides the necessary load of devices. UPS works with a battery and if the city electricity is connected, it uses it to charge the battery, and if the city electricity is cut off, it takes it out of the circuit and puts the battery in the circuit.

Duties of UPS emergency power

The main task of the UPS is to create a direct reliable connection during severe power fluctuations and power outages so that the electronic device connected to it does not suffer from problems and breakdowns. UPS uses two sources for its energy supply, the first source is city electricity, which are connected to each other with a plug, in this way, the required energy of the device is provided. If the power goes out, the UPS comes into action and supplies the device with the energy it has stored in its batteries.

The UPS battery is inactive under normal conditions, that is, the electrical energy of the electronic devices is supplied by the city electricity, and the UPS battery is also charged in the same way.

Types of UPS

There are three types of UPS based on their structure and function:

  1. Online UPS (online)
  2. UPS line interactive (Line interactive)
  3. UPS offline (offline)

online UPS is with double conversion method. Online UPS continuously converts and continuously converts proportional voltage to direct voltage to charge the battery. In emergency situations, UPSs feed the output load without mechanical switching, therefore there is no delay in supplying output power, so that the delay is 30 milliseconds.

Offline UPS normally communicates input and output via direct electrical connection Offline UPS In normal conditions, it divides the output loads directly through the input power, and when the input voltage is lower or more than the standard value, the UPS activates the output inverter so that the output loads are powered by the battery. The sea wave form of offline PSs is sinusoidal.

Highline Interactive UPS are very similar to offline UPS and the common shape of UPS is sinusoidal. UPS line interactive under normal conditions through auto transformer It has the ability to adjust the voltage range, and the battery that is in charging mode establishes the input and output connection. When the UPS battery power fails, the inverter feeds the consumer devices.

UPS Constituent Components

UPS has 3 main components which include the following:

battery ups

The battery is the plug of an electronic device that is connected to the city’s electricity. It uses only one power source. If the electricity in the city is cut off, the device will turn off quickly due to the power cut. UPS disrupts this equation. UPSs always have two power sources, that’s why UPSs are structurally different from emergency power systems and generators. One is the primary energy source, which is the city electricity, and the other is the source that enters the power circuit if the first source is interrupted, and it is called the secondary source, which is the UPS battery.

Depending on the UPS you choose, a switch is built in to control the type of secondary and primary power sources, and you can also set the power source you need manually. It changes to the secondary state and when the primary source is reconnected, it returns from the secondary state to the primary state, and the UPS batteries can provide your equipment with energy for 5 to 15 minutes.

charger ups

Chargers, electronic equipment use alternating current. Municipal electricity is alternating, but all batteries produce direct electricity, so a part of the UPS as a charger converts alternating electricity to direct electricity. To charge the batteries, considering that the electricity used by the batteries is direct current, city electricity is an alternating current type, part of the UPS, as a charger, has the task of converting the alternating current to direct current. The voltage of the UPS charger is the same as the voltage of the UPS battery.

The voltage created at the output of the UPS charger charges the battery. This voltage is between 3.41 and 13.7. You may be surprised to know that the voltage of ordinary batteries is 12 volts. Battery charging is done according to the formula of the charging curve, that is, the amount of current that the charger gives to the battery is high at the beginning and decreases over time, and when the battery is full, the current entering the battery will reach its lowest level.

UPS converter

The converter is responsible for converting the direct electricity stored in the battery into city alternating currents. If the electricity has a problem or even cuts off, the converter will immediately convert the direct current of the battery into alternating current and no problem will occur.


In general, emergency power UPS supplies the electricity needed by the devices connected to it through energy stored in the battery, which is in three online types strong>, offline and online interactive available. In this article, we introduced UPS emergency power and fully explained its structure and operation, Tesla is one of the most equipped and specialized UPS supply, repair and service centers with the latest ready-to-serve equipment. .

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